A simple yet highly functional nanoparticle ink could potentially help in the large-scale printing of new-generation perovskite solar cells and help make it become the dominating system in commercial photovoltaics.
The ink is produced from tin oxide and is made with a single primary step at a significantly low temperature through the use of microwave technology. In addition, the entire creation process of this ink requires no further purification. Moreover, it is then utilized in solar cells to help selectively move electrons; an essential process in producing electricity.
Prototype devices engineered through this method have documented an 18% power conversion efficiency rating which is one of the best efficiency ratings among planar-built perovskite cells that are produced at low temperatures.
The ink is compatible with printing various perovskite solar cell types, such as with glass as well as plastic. At huge volumes, the printing process can be very cheap. This printing technique termed roll-to-roll coating is the same process in newspaper printing.
Within the actual ink, the typical size of each speck can be controlled in order to remain in the 5 and 10 nanometers range.
Perovskite solar cells are already in competition with their successful silicon counterparts in terms of efficiency. Perovskite cells also offer better flexibility and utilize less energy to produce.
Issues related to manufacturing and long-term dependability and rigidity have been the prime points of concern hindering these innovative materials from beating silicone.
On the other hand, a group of researchers at the ARC Center of Excellence in Exciton Science who are working with CSIRO of Australia may have figured out an answer to a couple of the issues related to the Nanoparticle ink.
According to Dr. Doojin Vak of CSIRO, Perovskite cells can be produced through industrial printing. Although the process is relatively cheap, the cost of each component is still an essential point for consideration. This newly-developed process offers a significant contribution to the efforts to make the manufacturing of Perovskite solar cells low-cost in the near future.
It is crucial that the Nanoparticle ink can be produced with microwaves for a reason that immediate high-temperature processing of solar cell particles can result in degradation which as a result, the potentials of printed perovskite cells are then limited.
Nanoparticles made from tin oxide offer a vast array of characteristics and efficiency potentials that make them suitable for printing various solar cell types and other optoelectronic systems.
Air Pollution Led to 2,780 deaths, IQ loss, and illnesses in Kids in Massachusetts in 2019
Air pollution has been a silent killer among children in Massachusetts. It is responsible for a gander of 2,780 deaths every year and cognitive ability loss among children in Bay State who have been exposed to microparticulate pollutants that are scattered in the air. All of these are according to a study conducted by a group of researchers at the Global Observatory on Planetary Health in Boston College.
The study gained support from the Barr Foundation and it is also the first study to evaluate the widespread public health repercussions of air pollution in the state of Massachusetts based on every town. This study concluded that air pollution-related deaths, diseases, and IQ deficiency occur in every town and city regardless of income level or demographics. In addition, the highest rates were reported to be in the most economically-deprived and socially underprivileged towns and cities.
The Boston College research team estimated that the collective impact of childhood mental development in Massachusetts in the year 2019 was a loss of around 2 million IQ points for performance or over 2 IQ points for one average child. IQ loss heavily affects a child’s performance at school and it also curtails graduation rates, the researchers noted.
Philip J. Landrigan, MD, the lead author and Biology professor at Boston College, said that they are discussing the negative effects of air pollution at a highly local level in the state of Massachusetts, not only statewide. He added that this report provides people in every town and city the chance to see for themselves the reality of the current air quality and how their loved ones are breathing it. He also put emphasis on the plausible harmful health impacts of air pollution among children and adults as a result.
According to Landrigan, all of the noted health effects have occurred below EPA standard pollution levels. He stated that this is clear proof that the current EPA standards for air pollution are not protecting public health enough.
Information on air pollution is not available on a town-by-town basis due to the reason that there are no adequate air quality control stations across the state. The research team has figured out the current air pollution levels in the state’s towns and cities through the use of computer modeling and available data.
In a statement, Landrigan said that although Massachusetts does not have the same level of air pollution as India or China, everyone must be aware of the fact that this crisis is killing over 2,700 people in the state every year.